It looks like if the US government doesn't like you, and wants to make life miserable for you, they can require you to fill out a long form application for a passport. Here are a couple of the questions you might have to answer: List all your parent(s) residences one year before your birth. Please provide the names (as well as address and phone number, if available) of persons present at your birth such as medical personnel, family members, etc. The whole post is at Papers, Please, and is written by Ed Hasbrouck. And how do they verify the information that you give them?